知识分享第二期 | “隐形”的BIPV

发布日期:2020-11-20 00:00:00   浏览量 :110
unknown unknown 发布日期:2020-11-20 00:00:00  
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 在建筑屋顶、幕墙、遮阳等部位集成光伏以形成建筑产能表皮,是实现建筑能源系统脱碳的重要途径。但以往传统的光伏建筑,大多采用刚性深色单晶硅光伏板,一定程度上破坏了建筑的整体外观,同时也造成了大众对光伏建筑的刻板印象


Integrating photovoltaics on building roofs, curtain walls, shading and other parts to form building skin with generation capacity is an important way to achieve decarbonization of building energy systems. However, in the past, traditional photovoltaic buildings mostly used rigid dark monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic panels, which destroyed the overall appearance of the building to a certain extent, and also created the public's stereotype of photovoltaic buildings.


随着光伏技术的进一步发展,轻量化、柔性化、色彩和造型多样化的新型光伏产品将为建筑设计师提供更广阔的选择和创作空间,从而诞生了一系列相比于深蓝深黑、方正排列的传统光伏建筑来说更为美观、新颖的“隐形”光伏建筑

With the further development of photovoltaic technology, emerging photovoltaic products with light weight, flexibility, diversified colors and shapes will provide architects with a broader choice and creative space, resulting in a series of more beautiful and novel invisible BIPV.


新型光伏产品 

Emerging Photovoltaic Products


太阳能砖

 Solar Squard

埃克塞特大学太阳能实验室的衍生公司Build Solar设计了名为Solar Squared的太阳能光伏产品。该产品在透明玻璃砖内部间隔放置13片小型太阳能电池,并采取低倍聚光技术,将太阳辐射集聚到电池上,从而提升系统发电效率。并且,这种结构在兼顾室内采光的同时,也保证了建筑的保温性能


Build Solar, a spin-off company of the University of Exeter Solar Laboratory, designed a solar photovoltaic product called Solar Squared. This product places 13 small solar cells at intervals within the transparent glass bricks, and adopts low-power concentrating technology to concentrate solar radiation on the cells, thereby improving the power generation efficiency of the system. Moreover, this structure not only takes into account indoor lighting, but also ensures the insulation performance of the building.

图片来源:Build Solar

Image Source: Build Solar


白色和彩色的太阳能组件

White and Colored Solar Modules

瑞士电子与微技术中心(CSEM)采用可将太阳红外光转化为电能的太阳能电池技术和选择性散射滤光片技术,设计了全球首款白色光伏产品。并且,该产品可根据不同建筑外观需求,定制不同的颜色。


The Swiss Center for Electronics and Micro Technology (CSEM) designed the world's first white photovoltaic product by using solar cell technology that can convert infrared light into electrical energy and selective scattering filter technology. In addition, the product can be customized in different colors according to different architectural appearance requirements.
图片来源:CSEM
Image Source: CSEM


太阳能窗

Solar Window

毕达哥拉斯太阳能(Pythagoras Solar)在两块玻璃之间嵌入薄膜太阳能电池和棱镜,通过棱镜捕获并聚集太阳辐射,在提升光伏发电量的同时,过滤一部分太阳辐射得热,从而减少了空调能耗需求。因此,该产品在摩天大楼立面或建筑顶部天窗上具有良好的应用前景。

Pythagoras Solar embeds thin-film solar cells and prisms between two pieces of glass, and captures and concentrates solar radiation through the prisms. While increasing photovoltaic power generation, it filters part of the solar radiation heat, thereby reducing air conditioning Energy demand. Therefore, the product has good application prospects on the facade of skyscrapers or skylights on top of buildings.

图片来源:Pythagoras Solar

Image SourcePythagoras Solar


“”隐形”的BIPV

Invisible BIPV


马赛克光伏立面

Mosaic Photovoltaic Facade

在SDE 2010中,斯图加特大学在立面上采用金、青铜、黑色三种颜色的无边框薄膜光伏组件,组成具有马赛克视觉效果的光伏立面,而屋顶上的单晶硅电池则用以提供最大的功率输出。为了提高视觉观赏性和透光率,建筑表皮采用低铁玻璃,并在玻璃背面增加涂层以进一步增强玻璃的透光率。

In SDE 2010, the University of Stuttgart used frameless thin-film photovoltaic modules in three colors of gold, bronze and black to form a photovoltaic façade with a mosaic visual effect. The monocrystalline silicon cell on the roof is used to provide maximum Power output. In order to improve visual appreciation and light transmittance, low-iron glass is used on the building surface, and the back of the glass is coated to further enhance the light transmittance of the glass.

图源:斯图加特大学 Home+
Image Sourcethe University of Stuttgart, Home+

六边形光伏玻璃金字塔
Hexagonal Photovoltaic Pyramid

位于丹佛植物园的科学金字塔是一座用于展示科罗拉多州的主要生态系统,并探索世界各地类似环境的建筑。在这座金字塔形的建筑中,集成了专门定制设计的六边形晶体硅光伏玻璃组件,以搭配整个建筑表皮的六边形仿蜂巢结构。建筑上的六边形天窗采用电致变色玻璃,用来根据天气状况和展示需求调节室内照明。


The Science Pyramid at the Denver Botanic Garden is a building used to showcase the main ecosystem of Colorado and explore similar environments around the world. This pyramid-shaped building integrates custom-designed hexagonal crystalline silicon photovoltaic glass modules to match the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the entire building skin. The hexagonal skylights on the building use electrochromic glass, which can adjust the indoor lighting according to weather conditions and display needs.

图源:丹佛植物园科学金字塔
Image SourceThe Science Pyramid at the Denver Botanic Garden

光伏花伞遮阳
Photovoltaic Umbrella Shade
2019北京世界园艺博览会国际馆采用了内嵌柔性铜铟镓硒(CIGS)薄膜光伏组件的花伞遮阳装置。设计师对花形态进行了转译,花形的无方向感特点契合了国际馆所处场地的特点,而植物由根茎向叶片运输养分的过程,则是契合了伞柱内的雨水收集利用过程。

In the International Pavilion of the 2019 Beijing International Horticultural Exposition, the umbrella shading device embedded with flexible CIGS thin film photovoltaic modules was adopted. The designer translated the flower shape. The non-directional characteristic of the flower shape fits the characteristics of the venue where the International Pavilion is located, and the process of plants transporting nutrients from the rhizome to the leaves fits the rainwater collection and utilization process in the umbrella pillar.

图源:2019北京世界园艺博览会国际馆

Image SourceInternational Pavilion of the 2019 Beijing International Horticultural Exposition


随着技术的改进和成熟,新型光伏技术利用与建筑师创造性设计的良性结合,将赋予光伏建筑表皮造型更多可能性,从而让BIPV领域呈现出真正的技艺融合

With the improvement and maturity of technology, the benign combination of the utilization of new photovoltaic technology and the creative design of architects will give more possibilities for the surface modeling of photovoltaic buildings, thus allowing the BIPV field to present a real integration of technology and art.

参考文献:

[1] Aritra Ghosh. Potential of Building Integrated and Attached/Applied Photovoltaic (BIPV/BAPV) for Adaptive Less Energy-hungry Building's Skin: A comprehensive Review[J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020, 276: 123343.


[2] Tilmann E. Kuhn, Christof Erban, Martin Heinrich, et al. Review of Technological Design Options for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)[J]. Energy & Buildings, 2020: 110381.



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