2021年6月24日-27日，天津大学联队（TEAM Tianjin U+）在中国建筑科学大会暨绿色智慧建筑博览会上展出了其创作的绿色智慧建筑作品：R-CELLS——一生之宅。该作品即将参加第三届中国国际太阳能十项全能竞赛（简称 SDC2021）决赛，此次展出的是其先行版本。伴随着R-CELLS项目发布会的举行，为该项目提供支持的专家们于6月26日会聚一堂，展开了面向“碳中和“的建筑与能源系统设计论坛。
From June 24th to 27th, 2021, TEAM Tianjin U+ exhibited its green and smart building work at the China Building Science Conference and Green Smart Building Expo: R-CELLS-A House for a Lifetime. R-CELLS is about to participate in the finals of the 3rd Solar Decathlon China (SDC2021). The was exhibited this time. With the launch and first version exhibition of the R-CELLS, experts who provided design creativity and technical support for the project gathered on June 26 and provided a carbon-neutral building and energy system design forum.
The forum was co-organized by the School of Architecture of Tianjin University, Tianjin University Research Institute of Architecture Design and Urban Planning Co., Ltd and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Built Environment and Energy. At the meeting, Kong Yuhang, the Dean of the School of Architecture and Prof. Liu Gang delivered welcome speeches. Prof. Yang Wei of the School of Architecture and Professor Tian Zhe of the School of Environmental Science & Engineering presided over the first and the second half of the forum respectively.
Carbon-neutrality oriented green building design
任军 教授（天津大学建筑学院；天津市天友建筑设计股份有限公司 首席建筑师）
Prof. Ren Jun, School of Architecture, Tianjin University;
Chief of Executive Architect, Tianjin Tenio Architecture and Engineering Co., Ltd.
Since the concept of green building was put forward in the 1990s, it has derived such concepts as low-carbon building, nearly zero energy consumption building, zero emission building and "carbon neutral" building. The path to achieve carbon neutral building mainly includes two parts: energy production end and energy consumption end. Building carbon emissions show direct carbon emissions and indirect carbon emissions, and the corresponding realization path can be summarized into three aspects: demand reduction, ultra-high energy efficiency and energy substitution. The report explores architectural practices from ultra-low to near zero through five architectural cases. Finally, the section concept sketch of R-Cells, an architectural cabin in the decathlon competition of Tianjin University, is presented in the hope of helping to achieve carbon neutrality in the field of architecture with green design.
Designing Healthy and sustainable buildings
Chief of Executive Architect Zhu Jie, Tianjin University Research Institute of Architecture Design and Urban Planning Co., Ltd
Healthy China 2030 puts forward the theme of Building a Healthy China. For AEC industry, it is necessary to improve health performance, such as the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), water quality, sound insulation, as well as the visual and psychological comfort. The report emphasized on the necessary to understand Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) from the perspective of architecture, and then integrate intelligent monitoring, control, and maintenance to achieve quality buildings according to Assessment Standard for Healthy Buildings. The R-CELLS, designed by TEAM Tianjin U+, aims to achieve the goal of healthy and ecology. It is worth mentioning that ecological technology and the intelligent operation model applied in the house will ensure a good and healthy life for residents.
PEDF：An innovative type of building energy system
余涵 （深圳市建筑科学研究院股份有限公司 城市发展事业部副总经理；直流建筑联盟）
Deputy General Manager Yu Han, Urban Development Department, Shenzhen Institute of Building Research Co., Ltd；
Alliance of Building Direct Current
The new energy system for buildings in the future should be able to interact with the grid. Based on the prediction that renewable energy accounts for a large proportion in the future, electricity consumption of buildings is expected to change with the inflation of renewable energy generation. That is, consumption changes with electricity generation. In this case, electricity consumed is green, and the buildings is zero-carbon buildings. In 2018, academician Jiang Yi from Tsinghua University launched Alliance of Building Direct Current, proposing an innovative type of building energy system: Photovoltaic + Energy-storage+ Direct Current + Flexibility (PEDF). It was emphasized that direct current produced by photovoltaic can be used flexibly with the assistance of energy storage device, which make it possible to match the electricity demand to the ability of electricity supply. For example, at the peak hour of electricity supply, less power is required to maintain room comfort conditions. According to the actual application test, PEDF can greatly increase the utilization rate of photovoltaic energy. The R-CELLS house, equipped with PEDF, has the potential to interact with the grid, making full use of the photovoltaic power and energy storage devices with only one circuit easily controlled during the operation in Zhangjiakou, and will achieve the goal of zero carbon emission.
Low-carbon technology for wood structure building
朱能（天津大学环境科学与工程学院 教授，天津大学建筑节能中心 主任）
Prof. Zhu Neng, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tianjin University;
Director, Building Energy Efficiency Center of Tianjin University
Wood structure buildings play an important role in the history of ancient Chinese architecture. And wood structure buildings in contemporary have the advantages of larger housing area availability, short construction period, energy saving and environmental protection. However, standards in China about wood-structure buildings lay much emphasis on structure, mechanical properties, rather than on thermal aspects. It is essential to balance energy demand and supply through multi-energy coordination and multi-technology integration. The current research on the performance of water-passing walls of wood-structured buildings in Inner Mongolia has found that the use of water-passing walls in winter are equivalent to raising the outdoor temperature by 15℃. Further study on the selection of Phase Change Material (PCM), internal fluid distribution and heat storage, is being conducted and will be reported in the future.
Planning of user-side integrated energy system
穆云飞 (天津大学电气自动化与信息工程学院 教授)
Prof. Mu Yunfei, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University
China is still at the critical stage of industrialization and urbanization, which means a remarkably energy-saving and emission-reduction path to achieve the goal of "carbon neutrality" by 2060 is required. For industry parks campus, it is significant to develop integrated energy production-consumption systems. However, energy planning involves many risks such as multiparty participants, technologies, social strategies and organization. It is proposed that energy planning should be based on variable operation conditions, energy price randomness, multiparty game, data-driven, etc.
From energy-efficient low-energy buildings to energy flexible buildings
田喆（天津大学环境科学与工程学院 教授; 天津市建筑环境与能源重点实验室 执行副主任）
Prof. Tian Zhe, School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tianjin University;
Executive Associate Director, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Built Environment and Energy
Building electrification is an important part of the low-carbon energy revolution and an important means to achieve carbon neutrality. In China, the proportion of wind power and photovoltaic power generation will increase yearly, and it is expected to reach 16.5% by 2025.
To address the volatility and uncertainty of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, it is necessary to improve the flexibility of the power system. Generally, there are four types of flexible response: load shedding, load shifting, on-site power generation, and frequency control. It has been proved that the response ability of air conditions increases with the increase of cooling and heating load. Therefore, it is significant to predict the load as accurate as possible. In addition, the realization of flexible response also requires integrated building energy scheduling including data analysis, optimization control, demand response, strategy execution and feedback, operation evaluation and other modules, as well as intelligent operation and control of the air conditioning system including status perception and power control modules.
The awesome presentations attracted many audiences including teachers and students from TEAM Tianjin U+, representatives of design institutes and sponsoring companies, exhibitors and exhibition visitors. Everyone was discussing the design and technology of R-CELLS during the tea break.
文案 | 李洁、毕雪皎、段卓成
制作 | 鲁划
照片 | GIB、吴蔚桐、贾乐冉